How can I use iText to convert HTML with images and hyperlinks to PDF?

html-agility-pack html-parsing itext pdf xmlworker

Question

I'm trying to change.HTML to PDF implementing iTextSharp in anASP.NET Uses the MVC and andonline forms web applications. The<img> and <a> elements have relative URLs that are absolute, and some of the<img> The components are 39-zzz-zzz. Common responses on SO and in Google search results make genericHTML to PDF with codeXMLWorkerHelper that resembles the following:

using (var stringReader = new StringReader(xHtml))
{
    using (Document document = new Document())
    {
        PdfWriter writer = PdfWriter.GetInstance(document, stream);
        document.Open();
        XMLWorkerHelper.GetInstance().ParseXHtml(
            writer, document, stringReader
        );
    }
}

as an exampleHTML as in this:

<div>
    <h3>HTML Works, but Broken in Converted PDF</h3>
    <div>Relative local <img>: <img src='./../content/images/kuujinbo_320-30.gif' /></div>
    <div>
        Base64 <img>:
        <img src='data:image/png;base64,iVBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAAAAUAAAAFCAYAAACNbyblAAAAHElEQVQI12P4//8/w38GIAXDIBKE0DHxgljNBAAO9TXL0Y4OHwAAAABJRU5ErkJggg==' />
    </div>
    <div><a href='/somePage.html'>Relative local hyperlink, broken in PDF</a></div>
<div>

All graphics are missing from the final PDF, and all hyperlinks with relative URLs are broken and utilize a file URI format (file///XXX... instead of directing them to the appropriate website.

Relative URLs should be swapped out for absolute URLs in certain SO responses and other Google search results, which is absolutely acceptable in some circumstances. However, if all are globally replaced<img src> and <a href> Please refrain from posting a response to this topic that has characteristics with a hard-coded string, since it will be downvoted as unacceptable.

In test, development, and production environments, I'm trying to find a solution that works for many various web apps.

1
5
3/7/2017 7:12:01 PM

Accepted Answer

outside the normXMLWorker The mentioned problems are hence only takes into account absolute URIs behavior. Without certain more information, the parser cannot automatically determine URI coding or routes.

The broken link issue is resolved by implementing a ILinkProvider, and the broken image issue is resolved by implementing a IImageProvider. This is the first stage since both implementations must execute Resolution of URI. This is done via the assistance class that follows, which likewise aims to make web (ASP.NET ) context calls as straightforward as possible (examples follow):

// resolve URIs for LinkProvider & ImageProvider
public class UriHelper
{
    /* IsLocal; when running in web context:
     * [1] give LinkProvider http[s] scheme; see CreateBase(string baseUri)
     * [2] give ImageProvider relative path starting with '/' - see:
     *     Join(string relativeUri)
     */
    public bool IsLocal { get; set; }
    public HttpContext HttpContext { get; private set; }
    public Uri BaseUri { get; private set; }

    public UriHelper(string baseUri) : this(baseUri, true) {}
    public UriHelper(string baseUri, bool isLocal)
    {
        IsLocal = isLocal;
        HttpContext = HttpContext.Current;
        BaseUri = CreateBase(baseUri);
    }

    /* get URI for IImageProvider to instantiate iTextSharp.text.Image for 
     * each <img> element in the HTML.
     */
    public string Combine(string relativeUri)
    {
        /* when running in a web context, the HTML is coming from a MVC view 
         * or web form, so convert the incoming URI to a **local** path
         */
        if (HttpContext != null && !BaseUri.IsAbsoluteUri && IsLocal)
        {
            return HttpContext.Server.MapPath(
                // Combine() checks directory traversal exploits
                VirtualPathUtility.Combine(BaseUri.ToString(), relativeUri)
            );
        }
        return BaseUri.Scheme == Uri.UriSchemeFile 
            ? Path.Combine(BaseUri.LocalPath, relativeUri)
            // for this example we're assuming URI.Scheme is http[s]
            : new Uri(BaseUri, relativeUri).AbsoluteUri;
    }

    private Uri CreateBase(string baseUri)
    {
        if (HttpContext != null)
        {   // running on a web server; need to update original value  
            var req = HttpContext.Request;
            baseUri = IsLocal
                // IImageProvider; absolute virtual path (starts with '/')
                // used to convert to local file system path. see:
                // Combine(string relativeUri)
                ? req.ApplicationPath
                // ILinkProvider; absolute http[s] URI scheme
                : req.Url.GetLeftPart(UriPartial.Authority)
                    + HttpContext.Request.ApplicationPath;
        }

        Uri uri;
        if (Uri.TryCreate(baseUri, UriKind.RelativeOrAbsolute, out uri)) return uri;

        throw new InvalidOperationException("cannot create a valid BaseUri");
    }
}

Implementing ILinkProvider is quite easy now thatUriHelper reveals the root URI. Only the proper URI scheme is required.file or http[s] ):

// make hyperlinks with relative URLs absolute
public class LinkProvider : ILinkProvider
{
    // rfc1738 - file URI scheme section 3.10
    public const char SEPARATOR = '/';
    public string BaseUrl { get; private set; }

    public LinkProvider(UriHelper uriHelper)
    {
        var uri = uriHelper.BaseUri;
        /* simplified implementation that only takes into account:
         * Uri.UriSchemeFile || Uri.UriSchemeHttp || Uri.UriSchemeHttps
         */
        BaseUrl = uri.Scheme == Uri.UriSchemeFile
            // need trailing separator or file paths break
            ? uri.AbsoluteUri.TrimEnd(SEPARATOR) + SEPARATOR
            // assumes Uri.UriSchemeHttp || Uri.UriSchemeHttps
            : BaseUrl = uri.AbsoluteUri;
    }

    public string GetLinkRoot()
    {
        return BaseUrl;
    }
}

IImageProvider requires Applying only one technique,Retrieve(string src) , butStore(string src, Image img) is simple - just make a note of any inline remarks.GetImageRootPath() :

// handle <img> elements in HTML  
public class ImageProvider : IImageProvider
{
    private UriHelper _uriHelper;
    // see Store(string src, Image img)
    private Dictionary<string, Image> _imageCache = 
        new Dictionary<string, Image>();

    public virtual float ScalePercent { get; set; }
    public virtual Regex Base64 { get; set; }

    public ImageProvider(UriHelper uriHelper) : this(uriHelper, 67f) { }
    //              hard-coded based on general past experience ^^^
    // but call the overload to supply your own
    public ImageProvider(UriHelper uriHelper, float scalePercent)
    {
        _uriHelper = uriHelper;
        ScalePercent = scalePercent;
        Base64 = new Regex( // rfc2045, section 6.8 (alphabet/padding)
            @"^data:image/[^;]+;base64,(?<data>[a-z0-9+/]+={0,2})$",
            RegexOptions.Compiled | RegexOptions.IgnoreCase
        );
    }

    public virtual Image ScaleImage(Image img)
    {
        img.ScalePercent(ScalePercent);
        return img;
    }

    public virtual Image Retrieve(string src)
    {
        if (_imageCache.ContainsKey(src)) return _imageCache[src];

        try
        {
            if (Regex.IsMatch(src, "^https?://", RegexOptions.IgnoreCase))
            {
                return ScaleImage(Image.GetInstance(src));
            }

            Match match;
            if ((match = Base64.Match(src)).Length > 0)
            {
                return ScaleImage(Image.GetInstance(
                    Convert.FromBase64String(match.Groups["data"].Value)
                ));
            }

            var imgPath = _uriHelper.Combine(src);
            return ScaleImage(Image.GetInstance(imgPath));
        }
        // not implemented to keep the SO answer (relatively) short
        catch (BadElementException ex) { return null; }
        catch (IOException ex) { return null; }
        catch (Exception ex) { return null; }
    }

    /*
     * always called after Retrieve(string src):
     * [1] cache any duplicate <img> in the HTML source so the image bytes
     *     are only written to the PDF **once**, which reduces the 
     *     resulting file size.
     * [2] the cache can also **potentially** save network IO if you're
     *     running the parser in a loop, since Image.GetInstance() creates
     *     a WebRequest when an image resides on a remote server. couldn't
     *     find a CachePolicy in the source code
     */
    public virtual void Store(string src, Image img)
    {
        if (!_imageCache.ContainsKey(src)) _imageCache.Add(src, img);
    }

    /* XMLWorker documentation for ImageProvider recommends implementing
     * GetImageRootPath():
     * 
     * http://demo.itextsupport.com/xmlworker/itextdoc/flatsite.html#itextdoc-menu-10
     * 
     * but a quick run through the debugger never hits the breakpoint, so 
     * not sure if I'm missing something, or something has changed internally 
     * with XMLWorker....
     */
    public virtual string GetImageRootPath() { return null; }
    public virtual void Reset() { }
}

It's rather simple to attach the implementations of the Documentation for XML WorkersILinkProvider and IImageProvider into a simple parser class:

/* a simple parser that uses XMLWorker and XMLParser to handle converting 
 * (most) images and hyperlinks internally
 */
public class SimpleParser
{
    public virtual ILinkProvider LinkProvider { get; set; }
    public virtual IImageProvider ImageProvider { get; set; }

    public virtual HtmlPipelineContext HtmlPipelineContext { get; set; }
    public virtual ITagProcessorFactory TagProcessorFactory { get; set; }
    public virtual ICSSResolver CssResolver { get; set; }

    /* overloads simplfied to keep SO answer (relatively) short. if needed
     * set LinkProvider/ImageProvider after instantiating SimpleParser()
     * to override the defaults (e.g. ImageProvider.ScalePercent)
     */
    public SimpleParser() : this(null) { }
    public SimpleParser(string baseUri)
    {
        LinkProvider = new LinkProvider(new UriHelper(baseUri, false));
        ImageProvider = new ImageProvider(new UriHelper(baseUri, true));

        HtmlPipelineContext = new HtmlPipelineContext(null);

        // another story altogether, and not implemented for simplicity 
        TagProcessorFactory = Tags.GetHtmlTagProcessorFactory();
        CssResolver = XMLWorkerHelper.GetInstance().GetDefaultCssResolver(true);
    }

    /*
     * when sending XHR via any of the popular JavaScript frameworks,
     * <img> tags are **NOT** always closed, which results in the 
     * infamous iTextSharp.tool.xml.exceptions.RuntimeWorkerException:
     * 'Invalid nested tag a found, expected closing tag img.' a simple
     * workaround.
     */
    public virtual string SimpleAjaxImgFix(string xHtml)
    {
        return Regex.Replace(
            xHtml,
            "(?<image><img[^>]+)(?<=[^/])>",
            new MatchEvaluator(match => match.Groups["image"].Value + " />"),
            RegexOptions.IgnoreCase | RegexOptions.Multiline
        );
    }

    public virtual void Parse(Stream stream, string xHtml)
    {
        xHtml = SimpleAjaxImgFix(xHtml);

        using (var stringReader = new StringReader(xHtml))
        {
            using (Document document = new Document())
            {
                PdfWriter writer = PdfWriter.GetInstance(document, stream);
                document.Open();

                HtmlPipelineContext
                    .SetTagFactory(Tags.GetHtmlTagProcessorFactory())
                    .SetLinkProvider(LinkProvider)
                    .SetImageProvider(ImageProvider)
                ;
                var pdfWriterPipeline = new PdfWriterPipeline(document, writer);
                var htmlPipeline = new HtmlPipeline(HtmlPipelineContext, pdfWriterPipeline);
                var cssResolverPipeline = new CssResolverPipeline(CssResolver, htmlPipeline);

                XMLWorker worker = new XMLWorker(cssResolverPipeline, true);
                XMLParser parser = new XMLParser(worker);
                parser.Parse(stringReader);
            }
        }
    }
}

A remark was made inline.SimpleAjaxImgFix(string xHtml) handles XHR sent by may that is not closed<img> tags, which is valid in particularHTML nevertheless, invalidXML the break is willXMLWorker . is located here A straightforward description and implementation of how to use XHR with iTextSharp to receive a PDF or other binary data.

A Regex utilised inSimpleAjaxImgFix(string xHtml) such that no user of the code has to add an additional (copy/paste?)nuget bundle, but aHTML Use a parser like HtmlAgilityPackshould because it converts this to:

<div><img src='a.gif'><br><hr></div>

toward this:

<div><img src='a.gif' /><br /><hr /></div>

using only a few lines of code

var hDocument = new HtmlDocument()
{
    OptionWriteEmptyNodes = true,
    OptionAutoCloseOnEnd = true
};
hDocument.LoadHtml("<div><img src='a.gif'><br><hr></div>");
var closedTags  = hDocument.DocumentNode.WriteTo();

In addition, utilizeSimpleParser.Parse() As a custom ICSSResolver or ITagProcessorFactory, which is provided in the supporting materials, implement the above as a general blueprint.

The problems listed in the inquiry should now be resolved. Contacted by aMVC Action Method :

[HttpPost]  // some browsers have URL length limits
[ValidateInput(false)] // or throws HttpRequestValidationException
public ActionResult Index(string xHtml)
{
    Response.ContentType = "application/pdf";
    Response.AppendHeader(
        "Content-Disposition", "attachment; filename=test.pdf"
    );
    var simpleParser = new SimpleParser();
    simpleParser.Parse(Response.OutputStream, xHtml);

    return new EmptyResult();
}

also from aWeb Form which getsHTML coming from a server management

Response.ContentType = "application/pdf";
Response.AppendHeader("Content-Disposition", "attachment; filename=test.pdf");
using (var stringWriter = new StringWriter())
{
    using (var htmlWriter = new HtmlTextWriter(stringWriter))
    {
        ConvertControlToPdf.RenderControl(htmlWriter);
    }
    var simpleParser = new SimpleParser();
    simpleParser.Parse(Response.OutputStream, stringWriter.ToString());
}
Response.End();

Alternatively a simple HTML file stored on the file system with hyperlinks and images:

<h1>HTML Page 00 on Local File System</h1>
<div>
    <div>
        Relative &lt;img&gt;: <img src='Images/alt-gravatar.png' />
    </div>
    <div>
        Hyperlink to file system HTML page: 
        <a href='file-system-html-01.html'>Page 01</a>
    </div>
</div>

or HTML from a distant web page

<div>
    <div>
        <img width="200" alt="Wikipedia Logo"
             src="portal/wikipedia.org/assets/img/Wikipedia-logo-v2.png">
    </div>
    <div lang="en">
        <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/">English</a>
    </div>
    <div lang="en">
        <a href="wiki/IText">iText</a>
    </div>
</div>

beyond twoHTML ran from a console program, in a nutshell:

var filePaths = Path.Combine(basePath, "file-system-html-00.html");
var htmlFile = File.ReadAllText(filePaths);
var remoteUrl = Path.Combine(basePath, "wikipedia.html");
var htmlRemote = File.ReadAllText(remoteUrl);
var outputFile = Path.Combine(basePath, "filePaths.pdf");
var outputRemote = Path.Combine(basePath, "remoteUrl.pdf");

using (var stream = new FileStream(outputFile, FileMode.Create))
{
    var simpleParser = new SimpleParser(basePath);
    simpleParser.Parse(stream, htmlFile);
}
using (var stream = new FileStream(outputRemote, FileMode.Create))
{
    var simpleParser = new SimpleParser("https://wikipedia.org");
    simpleParser.Parse(stream, htmlRemote);
}

This response is somewhat lengthy, however if you look at questions on SO with the tag Zzz-255-Zzz, as of this writing (2016-02-23) there are Zzz-264-Zzz and 4,063 questions with Zzz-268-Zzz, for a total of Zzz-271-ZZZ.

11
5/23/2017 11:53:56 AM

Popular Answer

excellent post,

I had trouble getting my report's photos to convert from HTML to PDF. I could accomplish it thanks to your article.

I'm using Asp.mvc 5.

Just one method of the ImageProviderClass has to be changed.

public virtual string GetImageRootPath() { return null; }

to

public virtual string GetImageRootPath() { HostingEnvironment.MapPath("~/Content/Images/") }

thanks!



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